The Federal College of Education, Abeokuta was established in 1976 as the Federal Advanced Teachers College, in addition to three other similar Colleges that were previously in existence at Okene, Pankshin and Yola. It is the first tertiary institution in Ogun State. The College started at the then Abeokuta Grammar School, Isale-Igbein right in the centre of Abeokuta, the capital of Ogun State. The College at inception shared the site with Abeokuta Grammar School until early January, 1978 when the school moved to its new site.
Abeokuta, the location of the College, is a historic Yoruba town founded by the Egbas in 1830 and is the capital of Ogun State. The town’s geographical location makes it easily accessible. The nation’s seaport and industrial centre, Lagos is 104 kilometres to the South, while Ibadan, the largest city in the country is 77 kilometres to the North. Ogun State, otherwise known as the Gateway State, in a related vein is located in the South Western Zone of Nigeria. It is bounded in the West by the Republic of Benin; in the South by Lagos State and the Atlantic Ocean; in the East by Ondo State and in the North by Oyo and Osun States.
The Federal College of Education, Abeokuta provides three-year full-time and five-year sandwich courses respectively leading to the award of the Nigeria Certificate in Education [NCE]. The foundation day of the College is January 27, 1977, the day the first set of eighty-six  students were registered after about four months of preparatory activities and assembling staff and equipment on site. This action gave practical effect to the Government plan and provisions in the 1976/1977 estimates for the establishment of an Advanced Teachers College at Abeokuta among others provided for, at other places during the year.
In 1982, the then President-in-Council approved the autonomy of the College along with others under the name ‘Federal College of Education’. The legal instrument for this autonomy was effected through Decree 4 [now Act] of March 14, 1986 and the Federal College of Education [amendment] Decree 6 of January 1, 1993. The College moved to its permanent site in 1983 and presently occupies a land area of 632.95 hectares along the Abeokuta-Ibadan Road at Osiele, which the Federal Government vested to it vide Gazette No. 41 Vol. 64 of 25th August, 1977.
The permanent site of the College is located at Osiele Village, which is about ten kilometres from Abeokuta on Abeokuta-Ibadan Road. Plans for acquisition and development of the site were undertaken by the Federal Ministry of Education, with the firm of Vivian Uku and Associates of Benin as Consultant.
Alhaji Gani A. Belo was the founding Principal of the College and successfully steered the ship of the College for fifteen years [January 1976 – 1991]. This was followed by a brief period of interregnum during which the then Deputy Provost [Chief O.O. Abatan] held forte as the Acting College Provost before the assumption of office of Professor E.O.A. Ajayi [Nov. 1991 – 1999] as the second Provost of the College. Professor Ajayi advanced the frontiers of the College and entrenched the academic ethos among the College Staff. Dr. J.O. Akinmoyewa was the third Provost of the College [1999 – 2003] and he also consolidated the gains of his predecessors.
The third Provost, Dr. E.O. Filani, assumed office on 28th January, 2004 after a brief period of interregnum during which the then Deputy Provost [Dr. E.O. Adeniyi] held forte as the Acting College Provost.Dr E.O.Filani’s tenure expired January 2012 after a successful second term. The incumbent Provost Dr.Adetayo Ayodeji Ajayi assumed office on 3rd April 2012 having served as Deputy Provost and latter Acting Provost.
Since inception, the College has had five Governing Councils. Their duration and Chairpersons are:
1990-1993 - Late Pa J.A.F. Sokoya
2000-2003 - Chief Douyi Douglas Naingba
2005-2007 - Chief (Mrs) Aduke Maina
2009-2013 - Hon. Yunusa Ayinla Folorunsho
The fifth and current Governing Council was inaugurated on 29th April 2013 by the then Honourable Minister of Education, Prof. Rukayat Rufai. The Governing Council is headed by Sen. (Sir) Emmanuel Obiajulu Anosike